Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
4. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies followed by the Company in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements is as follows:
Use of Estimates
The process of preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with maturities of less than three months at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. From time to time, the Company may have cash balances in financial institutions in excess of insurance limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are valued at cost and are being depreciated over their useful lives using the straight-line method for financial reporting purposes. Routine maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Expenditures which materially increase the value or extend useful lives are capitalized. Property and equipment are depreciated over estimated useful lives of three to five years.
Research and Development
Research and development costs, including upfront fees and milestones paid to collaborators who are performing research and development activities under contractual agreement with the Company, are expensed as incurred. The Company defers and capitalizes its nonrefundable advance payments that are for research and development activities until the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed. When the Company is reimbursed by a collaboration partner for work the Company performs, it records the costs incurred as research and development expenses and the related reimbursement as a reduction to research and development expenses in its consolidated statement of operations. Research and development expenses primarily consist of clinical and non-clinical studies, materials and supplies, third-party costs for contracted services, and payments related to external collaborations and other research and development related costs.
In-process Research and Development and Goodwill
In-process research and development represents the value of LMB’s leading drug candidate which is an antibiotic solution used to treat catheter-related bloodstream infections (Mino-Lok) and is expected to be amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of eight years commencing upon revenue generation. Goodwill represents the value of LMB’s industry relationships and its assembled workforce. Goodwill will not be amortized but will be tested at least annually for impairment.
The Company reviews intangible assets annually to determine if any adverse conditions exist or a change in circumstances has occurred that would indicate impairment or a change in the remaining useful life of any intangible asset. If the carrying value of an asset exceeds its undiscounted cash flows, the Company writes down the carrying value of the intangible asset to its fair value in the period identified. No triggering events occurred since the acquisition of LMB that would suggest that a potential impairment may have occurred through September 30, 2018.
The Company evaluates the recoverability of goodwill annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset might be impaired. Goodwill is first qualitatively assessed to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. Factors that management considers in this assessment include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance (both current and projected), changes in management and strategy and changes in the composition or carrying amount of net assets. If this qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a two-step process is then performed. The two-step test first compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, no impairment exists, and the second step is not performed. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded as part of the second step of the test, to the extent that the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill is less than the carrying value.
The Company performed a qualitative assessment for our 2018 analysis of goodwill. Based on this assessment, management does not believe that it is more likely than not that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value. Accordingly, no further testing was performed as management believes that there are no impairment issues in regards to goodwill as of September 30, 2018.
Patents and Trademarks
Certain costs of outside legal counsel related to obtaining trademarks for the Company are capitalized. Patent costs are amortized over the legal life of the patents, generally twenty years, starting at the patent issuance date. There are no capitalized patents and trademarks as of September 30, 2018.
The costs of unsuccessful and abandoned applications are expensed when abandoned. The cost of maintaining existing patents are expensed as incurred.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to employees and directors as an expense in the consolidated statement of operations over the requisite service period based on the fair value for each stock award on the grant date, net of actual forfeitures. The fair value of each option grant is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Due to its limited operating history, limited number of sales of its common stock and limited history of its shares being publicly traded, the Company estimates its volatility in consideration of a number of factors including the volatility of comparable public companies. Because our stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and because changes in the input assumptions can materially affect the fair value estimate, the existing model may not necessarily provide a reliable single measure of fair value of our stock options.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to non-employees as an expense in the consolidated statement of operations over the service period based on the measurement of fair value for each stock award.
The Company generally does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash-flow or market risks; however, certain warrants to purchase common stock that did not meet the requirements for classification as equity were classified as liabilities. In such instances, net-cash settlement was assumed for financial reporting purposes, even when the terms of the underlying contracts do not provide for a net-cash settlement. Such financial instruments were initially recorded at fair value with subsequent changes in fair value charged (credited) to operations in each reporting period. When these instruments subsequently met the requirements for classification as equity, the Company reclassified the fair value to equity.
The Company follows accounting guidance regarding the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of uncertain tax positions in the consolidated financial statements. Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing our tax returns are required to be evaluated to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained by the applicable tax authorities. Tax positions not deemed to meet a more-likely-than-not threshold would be recorded in the consolidated financial statements. There are no uncertain tax positions that require accrual or disclosure as of September 30, 2018.
Any interest or penalties are charged to expense. During the years ended September 30, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company did not recognize any interest and penalties. Tax years subsequent to September 30, 2014 are subject to examination by federal and state authorities.
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. We provide a valuation allowance, if necessary, for deferred tax assets for which we do not consider realization of such assets to be “more-likely-than-not”. The deferred tax benefit or expense for the period represents the change in the deferred tax asset or liability from the beginning to the end of the period.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss per Common Share
Basic and diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss in each period by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during such period. For the periods presented, common stock equivalents, consisting of options, warrants and convertible securities were not included in the calculation of the diluted loss per share because they were anti-dilutive.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The financial statements include various estimated fair value information. Financial instruments are initially recorded at historical cost. If subsequent circumstances indicate that a decline in the fair value of a financial asset is other than temporary, the financial asset is written down to its fair value.
Unless otherwise indicated, the fair values of financial instruments approximate their carrying amounts. By their nature, all financial instruments involve risk, including credit risk for non-performance by counterparties. The fair values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, accrued interest, accrued expenses, notes payable and due to related party approximate their recorded amounts because of their relatively short settlement terms.
The Company groups its assets and liabilities measured at fair value in three levels, based on the markets in which the assets and liabilities are traded and the reliability of the assumptions used to determine fair value.
The Company’s financial liabilities measured at fair value as of September 30, 2016 consisted solely of the derivative warrant liability which was classified as Level 3 in fair value hierarchy (see Note 6). The Company used a valuation method, the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the requisite assumptions in estimating the fair value for the warrants considered to be derivative instruments. The Company has no financial assets measured at fair value as of September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017.
The Company may also be required, from time to time, to measure certain other financial assets at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These adjustments to fair value usually result from application of lower-of-cost-or-market accounting or write-downs of individual assets. There were no such adjustments in the years ended September 30, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
The Company currently operates as a single segment.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2018-07 expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to non-employees awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this ASU on its consolidated results of operations, financial position or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef